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An EQUAL and OPTIMAL educational opportunity through multi-sensory language arts.

Language Arts Course of Study (Standards) for Content and Cognitive Development

Revised and Extended by Myrna McCulloch, March, 1997

[Adapted for use by The Riggs Institute, 21106 479th Ave., White, South Dakota 57276]

These language arts standards derive from similar standards adopted in the state of Arizona in 1975. They are revised, updated and augmented in 1997 by The Riggs Institute, a nonprofit literacy agency of White, South Dakota.

The study of language arts is premised on the belief that success in the entire educational process is dependent upon the development of the essential language arts skills. We feel that without these skills, the productive development of the mind, mental self-discipline, continuing deduction and a real appreciation of our cultural heritage are not possible.

There are certain practical learning objectives which a good language arts program must set as minimum standards in order to achieve the goals of equal educational opportunity for all students regardless of socioeconomic or other factors beyond the students' control. Therefore, we propose the following reasons for the study of language arts:

  1. That each child will learn to communicate, orally and on paper, in standard English in order to function competently both in school and in life;
  2. That he/she will acquire the ability to read and comprehend the written word in preparation for the competitive world of work and to become a responsible citizen;
  3. That he/she may learn to spell correctly as an aid in preparation for business, civic and social life;
  4. That he/she may gain a true understanding of language through the study of grammar, syntax and correct usage to aid creative self-expression;
  5. That he/she may learn to write legibly and to use a word processor in order to communicate his/her written thoughts effectively;
  6. That the development of the critical facility, including literary taste and judgment, be acquired through the study of literary selections which represent the best examples of our written cultural heritage.

The application of these objectives is not intended to limit the teacher in any way, but rather to stimulate creative teaching by clearly defining student outcomes which should result from the study of language arts. If our suggested time frame does not meet with your state's or district's guidelines, feel free to change it to accommodate this scope and sequence to your teaching situation. We have advanced these "high expectations" in accordance with what has been done in some of the nation's best schools using superior curriculum and teaching methodologies.

Explicit decoding and encoding (known in this document as "phonics") and cognitive development have received emphasis as the initial effort of formal instruction in the language arts. The individual "learning style" of each student should be given consideration by using all the channels to the mind rather than limiting students to visually-oriented memorization and a "rote" teaching/learning process. Scientific study in linguistics and brain research have pointed to the need for systematic teaching of the structure of English words as well as focusing attention on auditory, visual, verbal and motor-tactile cognitive development in each child. We are here putting forth a "standard" for cognitive development which can ensure an EQUAL and OPTIMAL educational opportunity for every child. A "sight" vocabulary should be established and this can be done more quickly through the teaching of "explicit" phonics as recommended in the 1985 federal study, Becoming a Nation of Readers. Children should establish automaticity through phonetic analysis, the application of rules and syllabication and with practice in reading words in isolation. Phonics instruction and all other instruction should be based on practices which compilations of research have proven superior to others.

This course of study is intended to provide the majority of children with superior instruction in language arts. It is not intended to provide for the special needs of bilingual and special education students for we are aware that most state legislatures have provided for programs to instruct students in these categories.



To ensure knowledge of and proficiency in successful application of the basic language skills which facilitate learning at higher levels. These skills include: speaking listening, reading with comprehension, phonics, spelling (with syllabication and the rules of orthography), manuscript writing (printing), connected writing, composition, grammar/syntax, vocabulary development, and analytical thinking;

To ensure an ability to read, understand and appreciate the important ideas and achievements of man' s past, and to enable the individual to continue with lifelong learning, including technological advances of the present and future;

To enlarge the individual's capacity for self-expression and communication;

To provide for equal and optimal development of the individual's cognitive developmental sub-skills in auditory, verbal, visual and motor (tactile):


  1. Fundamental language arts learning experiences, acquired during K-3, strongly influence language development and thus all future learning.
  2. An ability to listen effectively and to see and hear differences is a valuable asset in learning.
  3. Visual observation, listening, writing, spelling and speaking, combined with reading reinforce and support the successful retention of the basic skills to be learned.
  4. Training to develop a consistent directional pattern in reading and writing improves perceptual skills and can help to prevent reading difficulties.
  5. Decoding (converting written symbols to speech sounds) and encoding (converting known speech sounds to written symbols) - known as phonics in this document - are high utility skills for reading, spelling and writing. These skills are essential and should be acquired at the initial stage of formal instruction in the language arts.
  6. To become a confident and independent reader, it is to the student's advantage to acquire the high utility skills of decoding and encoding as the initial thrust in a reading and spelling program.
  7. New vocabulary words are acquired as a student grows in his knowledge and ability to apply decoding and encoding.
  8. An adequate ability to use one's vocabulary in speaking and writing as well as in reading is necessary for scholastic purposes as well as for social and business/vocational purposes.
  9. A student's reading vocabulary should progress beyond his speaking and listening vocabulary as soon as effectively possible.
  10. Reading comprehension depends upon the interrelationship between language skills, automaticity in decoding, oral vocabulary, background knowledge and thinking skills.
  11. Reference skills acquired in the early grades reward the user with an independent ability to correct and improve his language arts skills.
  12. A systematic study of the grammar, syntax and usage of the English language helps a student to use standard English well, to comprehend both oral and written work better, and to write with greater efficiency.
  13. The base laid in grammar in the early grades can prove extremely valuable especially if instruction in composition and the other language arts is integrated with instruction in grammar.
  14. A foundation for good writing lies in the opportunity a student has to listen to well-modeled speech from parents and teachers, to enjoy quality, vocabulary-rich literature, to spend time in practicing and revising various types of writing, and in learning the "mechanics" of good writing: spelling, grammar and syntax.
  15. Well-written reading selections tend to reinforce a student's appreciation of authorship, personal vocabulary development, and fluency in and enjoyment of reading, writing, speaking, and listening.
  16. The goal of discussions related to reading selections should be directed toward understanding and recognizing important facts or possibilities about what is read, to being assisted in drawing conclusions about the author's intent, in understanding of characters' personalities and, in general, to teach the reader about the world and life.
  17. Literary and classical works that lend themselves to in-depth study aid reading comprehension, especially at upper and intermediate levels, with discussion and Socratic questioning techniques such as those developed by the Great Books and The Core Knowledge Foundation.
  18. The value of print literacy in non-English languages has been recognized and provision should be made for its acquisition and continued development both for its own value and the contribution it can make to English literacy.
  19. Self-image improves with a mastery of skills - appropriately expected at the individual student's level of competence.


  1. Listening activities develop an interest in reading, sharpen comprehension, focus attention and enlarge the reading vocabulary in the English language.
  2. Appropriate training in auditory and visual discrimination is a prerequisite to acquiring decoding skills.
  3. The left-right flow of the English writing system must be learned.
  4. Constant instruction and practice in seeing, writing and reading the language in a consistently left-right pattern is necessary to prevent confusion.
  5. Combining writing with hearing, seeing and saying the name of the letters of the alphabet and their sequence, kinesthetically reinforces learning.
  6. Learning the names of and sounds represented by the letters of the alphabet is essential in developing a proficient understanding of the component parts of a word.
  7. A sequential introduction to all the main sounds of the English language along with a systematic use of blending sounds into words, reinforced by utilizing all four channels to the mind, lays the foundation for independent reading and understanding the basic relationship of the language arts.
  8. The acquisition of decoding-encoding skills - going from sound, to word, to sentence, building the student's own sight vocabulary - expedites bringing the student's reading vocabulary into balance with his larger speaking vocabulary and his still larger listening vocabulary.
  9. A gradual introduction in both reading and writing of the high frequency words which contain an element that cannot be decoded in keeping with simple phonics generalizations will aid in ensuring their habitual recognition.
  10. Using new words in writing and reading of students' original sentences aids in the development of spoken and written vocabulary.
  11. Communication consists of more than the meanings of words. There are elements of purpose and intent in communication which are controlled largely by the choice of words and their arrangement in sentences.
  12. A student develops the ability to concentrate on the meaning of the material he is decoding when he has reached the point where his decoding skills are used automatically. Reading Performance and How to Achieve it, Barbara Bateman, Ph.D., J.D., University of Oregon.
  13. Systematic spelling lessons combined with original sentence writing and dictionary skills reinforce comprehension and other language arts skills.
  14. Spelling taught in combination with vocabulary, reading, composition and penmanship skills aids retention.
  15. Early dictionary use can pique interest in meaning, origin, and structure, and can develop self-correction ability.
  16. Exposing students to etymologies (how words have grown and spread across ethnic groups) develops an interest in words in general, aids the recall of spellings, and imparts a sense of history
  17. Instruction in the construction of acceptable sentences should begin in the early grades. Rephrasing a nonstandard statement into a standard statement is helpful.
  18. "The dull repetition of overused words, thinness of idea and vocabulary, and words introduced to annoy or offend the reader or listener do not promote communication but impede it and are therefore to be avoided." The Teaching of English Usage, Robert C. Pooley.
  19. Grammar instruction, integrated with instruction in composition, critical reading, systematic spelling and other language arts, can develop an awareness of the nature of standard English and promote a willingness to use standard English in speech and writing.
  20. An ability to use standard English effectively in the normal course of writing and speaking is a worthy goal, and can be facilitated when goals are clear, attainable and expected.
  21. English grammar instruction is applicable to some foreign languages which students wish to study later.
  22. Reading and writing "across the curriculum" should begin in the early grades since it helps develop the student's reasoning facilities, lays a basis for future work in more advanced studies, assures that every student's background and interests are taken into consideration and saves precious time for the development of language arts skills.
  23. A composite of selections representative of different cultural and ethnic groups enriches a student's reading experiences and develops cultural understanding.
  24. Carefully worded questions which motivate discussion help develop analytical skills, good oral habits and stimulate the ability to write creatively.
  25. The development and application of basic research techniques and the ability to employ study skills in acquiring new knowledge are necessary components of a complete language arts program.
  26. Learning to read, write and spell in English is facilitated for second language students who have first gained some knowledge of how their own native oral language "maps" to their printed language. We realize that the bilingual movement in the United States has not met with much success, and we understand the political moves away from it. We think these decisions are shortsighted at best, and a pending disaster at worst. Instead of ignoring the research findings, appropriate materials could easily be made available by simply translating any English program proven to work into the native language for a brief period of time.


This method has been translated into Spanish for a one-semester bilingual/transitional program, and has been used successfully by its teacher/translator to move Grade 2 bilingual students quickly and successfully into English. [Please contact us if you are interested to know more about this process.] The same thing could be done quite easily in any other language. We welcome the opportunity to assist others in this important work.

Editor's note: This language arts Course of Study is in its "draft" stages; we will appreciate any and all comments and suggestions from experienced teachers who have successfully taught The Writing & Spelling Road to Reading & Thinking (or other Orton-based programs) in a classroom setting. To others, these standards may, at first glance, seem too difficult to accomplish, however, they are written to hold up high expectations for the type of student achievement which we have been privileged to see accomplished through developmentally-appropriate instruction.



K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Auditory Skills

Auditory Awareness/Attention/Discrimination:
I M A A A Discriminate between loud and soft, high and low
I M A A A Discriminate among sounds in words at the beginning, middle, ending and rhyming
Phonology (Phonemic Awareness)
I M A A A Accurately "hear" 42 elementary sounds
I M A A A Listen to and recognize 42 phonemes used in spoken English words
I M A A A Be able to distinguish and apply phonemes in syllables and words for oral encoding practice
I M A A A Recognize "open" (vowel) sounds vs. closed consonant sounds
I M A A A Recognize "closed" consonant sounds vs. oral open sounds
I M A A A Recognize and use precise articulation in saying 42 elementary sounds
Auditory Memory
I M A A A Recall sounds in sequence
I M A A A A A Develop ability to recite poetry from memory
I M A A A A A Develop ability to sing songs, recalling both words and music from memory
Auditory Imagery
I M A A A Connect phonemes with a mental image of corresponding grapheme(s)
I M A A A A A A Connect words with mental images related to meaning
I M A A A A A A Connect sentences with mental images related to meaning
I M A A A A A A Recognize pronunciations including dialects and regionalisms
I M A A A A A A Listen attentively to stories and poems read aloud
I P P M A A A A Recognize and use various voice tones
I P P M A A A A Recognize and use voice inflections
I P P M A A A A Recognize and use rhythm
I P P M A A A A Recognize accurate expressions and pronunciation in oral reading
I P P M A A A A Listen to and participate in choral reading
I P M A A A A A Listen to and follow oral instructions
I P M A A A A A Recognize and use accented syllables
Visual-Motor Skills
Coordination. directionality, relative positions
I M A A A Develop accurate sense of directionality and relative positions (up/down, high/low, under/over/on, left/right, around, top/bottom, middle, back/front, open/closed, inside/outside, far/near, above/below, ahead/behind)
I P P M A Develop hand-eye coordination
I P P M A A Develop fine motor coordination to facilitate skills needed for penmanship
I P P M A A A Develop ability to estimate distances
I P P M A A A A Develop sense of spatial relationships
Manuscript writing (printing) (taught in conjunction with auditory phonetic skills
I M A Develop ability to form the 26 letters of the alphabet from oral instructions and/or visual "checkpoints" without copying
I M A A Develop the ability to adhere to margin lines
I M A A Develop the ability to space between letters in a word
I M A A A Learn use of lined paper, seating and posture positions (for left or right-handed students)
I M A A A Recognize how to hold the pencil to reduce stress and gain fine motor control
I M A A A Learn to properly use paper with appropriate spacing
I M A A A Recognize differences between manuscript printing and "book print" letters
I M A A A Form letters (graphemes) correctly to facilitate learning the corresponding correct sounds (phonemes)
I M A A A Write letters while learning corresponding sounds to reinforce cognition and to save time
Cursive (Connected) Writing
I M A A A Learn to use correct paper and pencil position techniques
I M A A A Recognize that all lower case letters within a word are connected with a special set of lines
I M A A A Recognize that certain capital letters do not connect to the next letter
I M A A A Recognize differences in upper and lower case letters and their correct formation
I M A A A A Use easy, legible handwriting as a tool for self-expression
I M A A A A Use connected handwriting daily for writing, sentences, stories, poems, letters and reports
Visual Skills
I M A A A Recognize differences between foreground and background
I M A A A Notice likenesses and differences
I P M A A Relate parts to a whole and vice versa
I P P P M A A Recognize patterns
I P A A A Recognize colors
Visual-Visual Motor Sequencing/Memory/Association
I M A A Recognize and recall proper sequencing
I M A A A Recognize and recall direction
I M A A A Make visual comparisons
I M A A A Recognize and use left to right flow of print
I M A A A A A A Recognize and recall spatial relationships
I M A A A A A A Recognize, recall and use correct linear eye movements
Verbal Skills

Note: Researchers Chall, Flesch, and Seashore have found that beginning grade one students have a speaking, comprehensible vocabulary of prom 4000 to 24,000 words

Speaking and Singing
I M A A Pronounce and use between 4000 and 24,000 words in phrases and sentences
I M A A A Stand, in front of class, and speak in full sentences with correct syntax
I M A A A Accurately pronounce, in isolation, the 42 elementary sounds of English
I M A A A A A Accurately hear, sequence and pronounce these 42 "sounds" within words in spelling dictation
I M A A A A A A Recognize and use accurate pronunciation of words in individual oral reading
I P M A A A Answer questions in full sentences
I P P M A A Give spontaneous oral responses to questions
I P P M A A Give oral directions
I P P M A A A A Dramatize stories and plays from reading selections
I P P M A A A A Read or recite poetry using proper cadence and rhythm
I P P A A A A A Speak, in appropriate cadence, in choral readings
I M A A A A A A Pronounce words accurately with proper:
I M A A A A A A Voice inflection
I M A A A A A A Tone
I M A A A A A A Rhythm
I M A A A A A A Enunciation
I M A A A A A A Articulation
I M A A A A A A Accent
I P P A A A A A Participate in group singing:
I P P M A A Accompanied
I P P M A A Unaccompanied
I P P M A A Hum melodies while listening to music
I P P M A A A A Give oral reports:
I P P M A A announcements
I P P M A A A news
I P P A A A A A books
I I P P M A A Give memorized speeches
I P P M A A A Maintain a natural, comfortable position while speaking
I P P M A A A Eliminate any incorrect or annoying "habits of speech"
I P P P M A A Read research "papers"
I P P P M A A Give extemporaneous talks on a variety of subjects
Phonemes/Graphemes - Letter Formation - 26 Letters - 42 Sounds = 70 Common Phonograms
The English Spelling Patterns
Write the 77 phonemes/graphemes of English (113 combinations
I M A Single letter consonants -- b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, I, m, n, p, qu, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z
I M A Single letter vowels -- a, e, i, o, u, y
I M A Other 2-, 3-, and 4-letter spelling patterns: er, ir, ur,ear, wor, ar, or, ch, th, sh, wh, oi/oy, ou,ow, ai/ay, au/aw, ea, ei, ie, ey, ew, eu, ui, ee, oa, oe, oo, si, ti, ci, ed, ng, igh, dge, tch, eigh, ough, ph, pn, gn, gh, rh, kn, wr
I M A Vowel diphthongs and digraphs
I M A Writing the graphemes of English
I M A Use left to right sequencing
I M A Use correct letter spacing for transference to sentence writing
I M A Adhere to margin lines
I M A Use neat and correct letter formation for the 26 letters of the English alphabet
I M A Recognize that 110 commonly-used spelling and pronunciations patterns of English words are what is needed to correctly encode the majority of words in a K-4 oral vocabulary
Listening/Speaking/Writing/Spelling with Syllabication and Rules of Orthography

Writing, dictation, blending, reading, syllabification, rules of orthography
I M A A Practice writing from dictation, blending sounds, to encode one-syllable words (dictated with correct sentences for comprehension, vocabulary, pronunciation) using 70 phonograms
I P P M A A Practice blending sounds to encode two and three-syllable words using 70 phonograms
I P P M A A Learn to distinguish syllable breaks phonemically
I P P P M A Learn the rules of syllabication and how to apply them automatically for encoding:
I P M A A One-syllable words are never divided
I P M A A Compound words are divided between the two base words
I P M A A Suffixes are divided between the suffix and the root word IF the suffix is sounded separately
I P M A A Prefixes are divided between the prefix and the root word
I P M A A Two consonants between two vowels in a word are usually divided between the consonants UNLESS the two consonants are sounded together (com mon, ma chine)
I P M A A A word with a single consonant between two vowels divides after The consonant IF the first vowel is short (clev er, lem on)
I P M A A A word with a single consonant between two vowels divides before the consonant IF the first vowel is long (mu sic, po lite, pa per).
I P M A A When a vowel is sounded alone in a word, it forms a separate syllable
I P M A A Two vowels together, but sounded separately in a word, are divided between the two vowels (di et, cru el, i de a)
I P M A A Words ending in le, preceded by a consonant, are divided before the consonant (tur tle, ca ble, whis tle)
I P M A A A A A Learn to take dictation, blending sounds to encode polysyllabic words using 76 phonograms
I M A A A Learn to, chorally dictate words, phoneme by phoneme, syllable by syllable to teacher
I M A A A Learn to make visual comparisons between dictation taken and dictation given:
I M A A A Receive and note teacher corrections
Recognize phonetic variations in irregularly spelled words
I M A A A Recognize "schwa" and "regional" pronunciations versus linguistically-correct spelling patterns in words
I M A A A Recognize "silent" letters in words.
I M A A A Recognize and apply the rules of orthography (spelling) where applicable:
I M A A A That q is always followed by u, and that u is not a vowel in this instance.
I M A A A That the letter c before e, i or y says "s".
I M A A A That the letter g before e, i or y may say "j".
I M A A A That vowels a, e, o, u usually say their names at the end of a syllable.
I M A A A That vowels i and y may say their long sound at the end of a syllable but usually say their short one.
I M A A A That vowel y, not i, is used at the end of an English word.
I M A A A That there are silent e's are on the ends of English words for four reasons:
I M A A A To let the a say its name in "name".
I M A A A Because English words do not end with u or v (blue/have).
I M A A A To allow c and g to say their soft sounds in words like chance and charge.
I M A A A Because every written syllable must have at least one vowel (lit tle).
I I P M A That the letters o-r may say "er" if w comes before the o-r (works).
I P M A A That we use ei after c, if we say long a. and in some exceptions.
I P M A A That sh is used at the beginning of word, at the end of a syllable, but, not at the beginning of second, third or fourth syllables except for the ending ship.
I P M A A That ti, si, and ci are used to say /sh/ at the beginning of any syllable after the first one.
I P M A A That s-i is used to say /sh/ when the previous syllable ends in an s (session) or if a base has an s where a suffix is added (tense/tension).
I P M A A That s-i can also say "zh" When adding vowel suffixes.
I P P M That a one-syllable word ending with one short vowel and one consonant, doubles the final consonant.
I M A A A That a two-syllable word ending with one short vowel and a consonant, doubles the final consonant IF the accent is on the last syllable.
I M A A A That all silent final e words drop the e.
I M A A A That consonants 1, f and s after a single vowel in a one syllable word are often doubled.
I M A A A That, except for the article a, base words ending in long a, usually use ay
I M A A A That vowels i and o usually say long i and o when followed by two consonants.
I M A A A That s never follows x.
I M A A A That all is written with one 1 when added to another syllable
I M A A A That till and full added to another syllable are usually written with one 1
I M A A A That digraphs ck and dge are used after single vowels which say the soft sound of a, e, i, o, u.
I M A A A That adding a suffix to a word that ends with y after a consonant, the y changes to I (fry-fried) unless the suffix is ing (cry-crying).
I M A A A That the letter z, not s, is used to say "z" at the beginning of a base word.
I M A A A That he past tense ending, ed, says "d" to "t" when added to words not ending in /d/ or /t/ (loved/wrapped); that e-d says "ed" after words ending in /d/ or /t/ and form another syllable (word/worded, part/parted).
I M A A A Learn exceptions to spelling rules where applicable.
I M A A A Learn to use mnemonics to aid memory of correct spelling patterns.
I P P M A A A A Recognize that dictionary "pronunciation" symbols are very often not an aid to correct spelling.
I P P M A A A A Recognize that knowledge of the roots (origin of words), prefixes and suffixes help to reveal the exact meaning of words and often identify spelling patterns.
Spelling, Blending, Reading (Decoding)
I M A A A With class, "blend" and read spelling words, in isolation, to establish automaticity with "sight" vocabulary learned through applied phonetics and the application of rules.
I P M A A Recognize that consonant "blends" are two or more elementary sounds (phonemic/graphemic awareness) rather than combined and "collapsed" additional sounds.
I M A A A Recognize generalizations inherent in the pronunciation and spellings of the phoneme/grapheme representations in words.
I M A A Recognize how and when to use short and long vowel sounds in decoding.
I P P P M A A Recognize and use common prefixes and suffixes:
I P P M A A Know meanings of (and use) suffixes: s, ed, ing, y, er, ness, less, ly, ful.
I P P M A A Know meaning of prefixes: bi, pre, un, re, mis, dis.
Recognize and use rules to form plurals:
I P M A A Most nouns add the letter s to the singular to form the plural (boy/boys).
I P M A A Nouns ending in s, sh, ch, x or z form their plurals by adding es.
I P M A A Nouns ending in o, following another vowel, form their plural by adding an s; some are musical terms (pianos, rodeos, sopranos)
I P M A A Some nouns ending in o following a consonant add s to form their plurals; others add es (zero/zeros, hero/heroes)
I P M A A The plural of nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant is formed by changing the y to i and adding es (fly/flies, country/countries)
I P M A A The plural of nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel is formed by adding an s (boys/journeys/monkeys/trays/buoys)
I P P M A A The plural of most nouns ending in f or fe is formed by adding an s (gulfs/safes/roofs): some are formed by changing f to v and adding es (leaf/leaves, shelf/shelves); others are optional (hoof/hoofs/hooves).
I P P M A A The plural of a few nouns is formed in irregular ways (child/children, tooth/teeth, mouse/mice, ox/oxen)
I P P M A A Some nouns are the same in singular and plural forms (deer, sheep, salmon, Chinese, series)
I P P M A A The plural of compound nouns written as one word is formed by adding s or es (spoonfuls/cupfuls/leftovers/strongboxes)
I P P M A A Plurals of compound nouns consisting of a noun and its modifier is formed by making the modified word plural (mothers-in-law, notaries public, boards of education, women doctors)
I P P M A A A Recognize and use accented syllables in words
I P P M A A A Recognize that linguistically-correct spelling patterns often do not reflect what has now been accepted as correct pronunciations (u genst vs. a gainst)
I M A A A Speak in front of class using spelling/vocabulary words, orally, in correct English sentences
I M A A A Spell, understand and use words which are in the vocabulary of literature and other course content areas
Initial Composition from Oral Expression - Creative/Expressive
I M A A A Write original simple sentences using words from spelling/vocabulary lists and oral, comprehensible vocabulary
I M A A A Write original compound sentences using specific words from spelling list and oral, comprehensible vocabulary
I M A A A Write original complex sentences using specific words from spelling list and oral, comprehensible vocabulary
I P M A A Write sentences with understanding and use of the parts of speech in creative Written expression: Nouns, Verbs, Pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Articles, Conjunctions, Prepositions (see section under Syntax for more on etymology)
Write 3 - 4 sentence paragraphs with:
I P M A A A Topic sentences
I P M A A A Two and three sentences about topic sentence
Be able to use pre-writing checklists:
Decide on reason or purpose for writing such as:
I P P A A To entertain
I P P A A To create
I M A A A To inform
I M A A A To report
I M A A A To ask
I P P A To tantalize
I P P M A A Think about readers or a real audience
I P P M A A Choose subject or take subject assignment as given
I P P M A Be able to make the subject fit the form of writing for paragraphs, reports, essays, stories, letters 1) narrative 2) descriptive 3) expository 4) persuasive
I P P M A Limit the subject to what is chosen or assigned
I P P P M A A Find ideas about subject
I P P P M A A Sort ideas into groups
I P P M A A Arrange ideas in order of importance, main ideas, chronologically, etc.
Be able to create ideas, word pictures, and to write imaginatively from:
I P P M A A A Ideas advanced by others
I P M A A A A Looking at interesting and provocative pictures
I P M A A A Answering questions posed by others
I P M A A A Reporting on something which has happened
I M A A A A A Learning to use adjectives and adverbs in sentences
I P P M A A A A Learning to be observant about surroundings, what is happening, and what you think about it
Be able to progress through the steps of writing and revising:
I P P M A A A A Putting ideas on paper
I P P M A A A Rearranging ideas
I P P M A A A Revising and refining ideas
I P P M A A A A Conferencing with teacher and others
I P P M A A A A Offering constructive suggestions to others
I P P M A A Making changes for clarity and interest to the reader
Be able to edit, proof, rewrite. and edit for final copy:
I P P M A A A Correct all spelling errors
I P P P M A A Correct all errors in syntax (see Syntax section below)
I M A A A A A A When writing in manuscript printing or connected writing, use proper spacing, margins, letter formation
I P P P M A A A Correct all errors in capitalization and punctuation (see appropriate sections)
I P P P M A A A Be readily able to "proof' your own and others' writing
I P P M A A Learn and use proofreaders marks
I P P M A A A Participate in "editing" conference with teacher
I P M A A A Prepare and illustrate final copy
Write for the following assignments:
I P P M A A A Book reports
I P M A A A Friendly letters
I P M A A A A Address envelopes
I P M A A Make personal address book
I P P A A Business letters
I P P M Letters to the Editor
Research reports (individual and class) with:
I P P M A A Description
I P P M A A Sequence
I P P P M A Comparison
I P P M A A Cause and Effect
I P P P M A Problems and Solutions
I P P M A Bibliography
I P P M A References
I P P M A Footnotes/Endnotes
I P P P M A Outlining
I P P M A Biographies
I P P M A A A A Autobiographies
I P P P M A Write poetry using basic knowledge of definitions and structure
I P P M Prosody
I P P M Versification
I P P M Discourse
I P P M Prose
I P P P M A Verse (Poetry)
I P P P M A Rhyme
I P P P M A Vowel Sounds
I P P P M A Consonant Sounds
I P P M Accent (Iambus, trochee, spondee, pyrrhic, anapest, dactyl and amphibrach
I P P M Poetic Feet Meter manometer, diameter, trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter, heptameter, octameter
I P P P M A A Blank Verse
Syntax (construction of sentences) taught through original compositions and diagraming
I M A A A Write simple sentences from dictated sentences which can be spelled correctly
I M A Learn, illustrate and record the definition of a simple sentence
I M A A A Write original simple sentences of the following types using specific words from spelling lists:
I M A A A Declarative (Cats sleep.)
I M A A A Interrogative (Where do cats sleep?)
I M A A A Imperative (Put the cat to sleep.)
I M A A A Exclamatory (Wow! Cats sleep a lot!)
Using correct capitalizations...
Recognize and write capital letters for the following:
I M A A First word in a sentence
I P P M A A First word in every line of poetry
I P P M A A First word at the beginning of a direct quotation
I P M A A Names, initials and titles of persons
I M A A A Days of the week and months of the year
I P M A A A First word in salutations (greetings)
I P P M A Names of nationalities, races, languages and religions
I P M A A A Geographical names
I P P M A A Names of organizations
I P P M A A Names of books, magazines, newspapers, works of arts, musical compositions
I P M A A A A Any name referring to the Deity
I P P M A A Names of holidays, historical periods, special events, famous documents, special buildings, names of airplanes and ships
Use correct punctuation:
I M A A A At the end of sentences
I M A A After initials
I P P M A In outlines
I M A A A After numerals and letters
I M A A A Question marks
I M A A A Exclamation points
I P M A A In possessive case
I P M A A In contractions
I P M A A To indicate a change in thought
I P M A A To indicate parenthetical expression
I P M A A In compound words
I P M A A A In syllabic divisions of words
I P P M A To indicate numbered sections within sentences
I P P M A To enclose words that explain or are incidental
I P P M A To enclose a symbol, number, or letter when it is used as an appositive
I P P M A Title of books. magazines, newspapers when you cannot italicize
I P P M Title of any complete published work when you cannot italicize
I P M A A In dates
I P M A A In direct quotations
I P M A A With words in a series
I P M A A After yes and no
I P M A A Between city and state
I P M A A After direct address
I P M A After last name when preceding first name
I P P M A In linking two clauses with a coordinate conjunction
I P P M Around parenthetical expressions
I P M A A A Professional titles
I P P M With appositives
I P M A A A After greeting in friendly letters
I P M A A A After complimentary close in friendly letters
I P P M A With contrasting expressions
I P P M A With non-restrictive clauses
I P P M In compound sentences, for clarity, after introductory phrases and clauses
I P M A To separate hours and minutes
I P P M A A To introduce a list
I P P M A In business letters
I P P M A To connect independent clauses
I P P M Between items in a series if the items contain commas
I P P M Before a conjunctive adverb that connects two clauses
I P P M Between two clauses of a compound sentence when not joined by a coordinate conjunction such as and, but, or, for, yet
Quotation marks:
I P P P M Around exact words of a speaker
I P P M A A Titles of written works that are not individually published
I P P M A A Around direct quotations
Learn to recognize subject and predicate of simple sentences:
I P P M A A A By using recorded/illustrated simple subject and predicates on wall charts
I P P M A A Through writing simple sentences with subject/predicate
I P P M A A By diagraming simple sentences (Fish/swim)
I P P M A A By "discovering" simple subjects and predicates in material written by others.
Learn to write original sentences with compound subjects:
I P P M A A Use recorded, illustrated simple sentences with compound subjects as a self-teaching and self-correcting reference
I P P M A A Diagram simple sentences with compound subjects (Cats and dogs run.)
Write original declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory sentences stressing creativity using specific words which can be spelled correctly - generally.
I P P M A Proofread to find any spelling, capitalization, illegible handwriting, punctuation, spacing, margins, style and form errors
I P P M A A Classify representative sentences by type
I P P M Recognize representative sentences, by type, in materials written by others
I P P M A A A Recognize, say, write and diagram sentences with singular nouns and verbs... adding:
I P P M A A Articles and adjectives, intransitive verbs (The black cat sleeps.)
Learn that adjectives answer the questions:
I P P M A A What kind?
I P P M A A Which one?
I P P M A A Whose?
I P P M A A How many?
I P P M A A Articles, adjectives, adverbs (The black cat sleeps soundly.)
I P M A A Recognize that adverbs answer the questions:
I P M A A How?
I P M A A How much?
I P M A A Why?
I P M A A When?
I P M A A Where'?
I P M A A Articles, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, objects of prepositions (The black cat sleeps soundly under the bed.)
I P P M A Nouns as direct objects after transitive verbs (Dogs chase cats.)
I P P M A Copulative (linking) verbs (Cats are sleepy.) (Dogs seem friendly.)
I P P M A "To be" verbs (I am, You are, He/She/It is)
I P P M A As predicate nominatives (My name is Mary.)
I P P M A As predicate adjectives (Cats are tired.)
I P P M A A With coordinate conjunctions (The black and white cats sleep by the door.)`
I P P M A A With auxiliary verbs (Black cats can sleep.)
I P P M A A With singular subject pronouns (She likes black cats.) (He does, too.)
I P P M A A With plural subject pronouns (They like white cats.)
I P P M A A With possessive subject pronouns (His/her/their) cats is/are white.)
I P P M A A With singular object pronouns (Give the black cat to her.) (Give the white cat to him.)
I P P M A A With plural object pronouns (Give the white cats to them.)
I P P M A A With possessive plural object pronouns (The cats are theirs)
I P P M A A With indefinite pronouns (It is a black cat.)
I P P M A With complete subjects and predicates (I have a feeling that the black and white cats sleeping under the bed are very content.)
With direct address and interjections:
I P P M (Jane, I have found your cat.)
I P P M (Billy, feed the cats.)
I P P M (Oh! Where are those darn cats?)
With subordinate clauses (also called propositions)...
I P P M A Adverbial (I came when you called me.)
I P M A A Adjectival (You may have the black cat that you wanted.)
With verbals... [Note: not all grammarians treat these verb forms the same]
I P P M Infinitives (The cat wants to sleep.)
I P P M Participles --Present:
I P P M As adjective (The sleeping cat is under the bed.)
I P P M As noun (Cats like sleeping.)
I P P M Past (or Perfect) (The letter was written.)
I P P M Perfect (or Compound) (Having awakened, the cat stretched.)
I P P M Hanging (Same)
I P P M Gerunds (participial nouns and adjectives)
I P P M As nouns (I like skating.)
I P P M As adjectives (This book is boring.)
I P P M With indirect objects (Peter gave Sally a rose.)
I P P M A In apposition (Spot, my dog, is chasing the cat.)
I P P M As object complements (They call me Tyler.)
Etymology (Parts of Speech: Classification, Derivation & Properties of Words) [Taught through direct instruction, composition, diagraming and parsing]
I P P M Common (table, chair, book, girl, radiation, joy)
I P P M Class (horse, apple, man)
I P P M Abstract (brightness, cohesion)
I P P M Collective (herd, jury, class, school)
I P P M Participial (singing, standing, waiting, seeming)
Proper (Bill, Atlanta, France, The Titanic)
I P P M Masculine(father, uncle, king, boy)
I P P M Feminine(mother, aunt, queen, girl)
I P P M Neuter(stove, city, pen, tree, house)
I P P M A Common(parent, children, bird)
I P M A First (Denotes speaker: I, James... )
I P M A Second (Denotes person addressed: James, be more careful.)
I P P M A Third (Denotes person/object spoken of: Milton was a poet.)
I P P M A Singular (apple, flower, boy, man)
I P P M A Plural (apples, flowers, boys. men)
I P P M Nominative (The sun shines. She is my sister.)
I P P M Possessive
I P P M Singular (The sun's rays)
I P M A Plural (Boys' caps)
I P M A Objective (John studies grammar.)
I P M Absolute (John, bring me a book.)
I P M In Apposition (Washington the general became Washington the statesman.)
Classes (five):
I P P M A Personal(I, you, he, she, it, we, our, us, my, mine, you, your, his, him, her, its, they, their, them, thou, ye, thy, thine, thee)
I P P M A Compound Personal (myself, yourself, himself, themselves, ourselves, etc.)
I P M Reflexive (The chef burned himself.)
I P M Intensive (I made the dress myself.)
I P P M A A Masculine (he, his, him, himself)
I P P M A A Feminine (she, her, hers, herself
I P P M A A Neuter (it, its, itself)
I P M A A First (I, me, my, mine, we, our, us)
I P M A A Second (you, your, thou, thy, thee)
I P M A A Third (he, she, it, his, her, its, him, her, they, their, them)
I P M A A Singular (I, my/mine, me, you, your, thou, thy/thine, thee, he, she, it, his. her, its, him)
I P M A A Plural (we, our, us, ye, your, you, they, their, them)
I P P M A Nominative (I, we, thou, ye, you, he, she, it, they)
I P P M A A Possessive (my, mine, our, thy, thine, your, his, her, its, their, theirs)
I P P M A Objective (me, us, thee, you, him, her, it, them)
I P M Simple Relative (who, whom, that, which, what, whose)
I P M Compound Relative (whoever, whomever, whosoever, whomsoever, whichever, whichsoever, whatever, whichsoever)
I P M Possessive (whoever, whosoever, whomever, whomsoever)
I P M Subject (whoever/whosoever)
I P M Object (whomever/whomsoever)
I P M A A Interrogative (who, whom, whose. which, what)
I P M A A Subject (Who is going?)
I P M A A Object (We are going with whom?)
I P P M A A Indefinite (all, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, each one, each, each one, each other either, everybody, everyone, everything, few many, neither, nobody, none no one, nothing one, one another, ones, other, others, several, some, somebody, someone, something)
I P P M Demonstrative- singular and plural: (this/these, that/those)
Classes (indicating use)
I P P M A A Linking (Copulative) (Mary is beautiful. Mary is my name.)
I P P M A A Transitive [action] (The hunter killed a bear.)
I P P M A A Intransitive (Flowers grow.)
Classes (indicating form)
I P P M A A Regular (love/loved, count/counted. pass/passed, build/built))
I P P M A A Irregular (see, saw, seen - go, went. gone)
I P P M A A Auxiliary (Helping) (do, be, have. shall, will, may, can, must)
I P P M A A Present (I do believe.)
I P P M A A Past (I have believed.)
I P P M A A Active (Billy threw the ball.)
I P P M A A Passive (The ball was thrown.)
Mode [also called "mood" ]
I P M A Indicative (The man leaves.)
I P M A Subjunctive (If I were you, I would leave.)
I P M Potential [uses may, can, must, might, could, would. should] (He must go.)
I P M Imperative (Do come to see us.)
I P M Infinitive [gerunds as "verbals" in some texts] (He rose to speak.)
I P P M A A Present (I walk. The army is marching.)
I P P M A Past (or Present Perfect) (I learned my lesson.)
I P P M A Future (I will go. He shall arrive.)
I P P M A Present perfect ( I have learned my lesson.)
I P P M A Past perfect (The boat had sailed before midnight.)
I P P M A Subjunctive (If I had looked, I would not have missed.)
I P P M A Potential (If you had come, I would have stayed also.)
I P P M A Future perfect (We shall have eaten before you arrive.)
I P P M A Common (I write.)
I P P M A Emphatic (He did go.)
I P P M A Progressive (I am writing.)
I P P M A Passive (John was loved.)
I P M Ancient (Thou art the man.)
Number & Person (agreement with each other)
I P P M A A A A Singular (She writes.)
I P P M A A A A Plural (They write.)
I P P M A A A A Descriptive (She was a beautiful girl.)
I P P M A A A A single descriptive (pretty, round, sweet, good, twinkling)
I P P M A A A compound descriptive (high-sounding, ill-matched)
I P P M A Definite (I have the correct time.)
I P P M A Indefinite (a, an) (Bring me a book.) (You may have an apple.)
Pronominal adjectives (pronouns used as adjectives) [also shown under pronouns]
I P M A Demonstratives (this, that, these, those, former, latter, both, same, yonder)
I P M A Distributives (each, every, either, neither)
I P M A Indefinites (all, any, other, another, certain, enough, few, little, (many, much, no, none, one, own, several, some sundry, whatever)
Numeral Adjectives
I P M A Cardinal (two fifty thirteen)
I P M A Ordinal (first, fiftieth)
I P M A Multiplicative (twofold, fourfold)
I P M A Positive (Good, mild, beautiful)
I P M A Ascending (warmer, milder, colder, less studious, more considerate
I P M A Descending (worse, less studious)
I P M A Superlative (least likely, most perfect)
I P M A Irregular (good, better, best - bad, worse. worst)
I P P M A A A A Time (When? How long? How often?)
I P P M A A A Place (Where? Whither? Whence?)
I P P M A A A Cause (Why? Wherefore?)
I P P M A A A Manner (How?)
I P P M A A A Degree (How much?)
I P P M A More and most, Less and least - to words with ly))
I P P M A (Er and es)
I P P M Irregular (as, well, better, best; ill, worse. worst, little, less. least, much, more, most)
I P P M Conjunctive (when. where, before, etc.)
I P M A Independent (as, yes, no, why, well)
I P M A Interrogative (why, where, when)
I P M A A Copulative ( and, also, further, moreover)
I P P M A Adversative ( but, still, yet, only, however, notwithstanding)
I P P M A Alternative ( else, otherwise, or, nor, either, neither)
I P M A Illative (hence, thence, then, therefore, wherefore, for, because, so, consequently, accordingly)
I P P M A Causal (that, so that, if, unless, except, as, because, since, although, though, for, whereas, inasmuch as, lest)
I P M Temporal (Ere, after, before, until, whilst, while, when)
I P M Local (where, there, whence, thence, whiter, thither)
I P M Manner/Degree ( as, as if, how, although, than, so as)
I P M Correlative (and, as; as if; then, so; notwithstanding; yet; yet, either; or; nor, neither;)
I P M Connectives (as if, as well as, except that, forasmuch as, but also, but likewise, notwithstanding that, not only)
I P P M A A A A [Aboard, above, according to, across, after, against. along, amid. amidst, among, amongst, around, as to, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside. besides, between, beyond. but by, but, concerning, down, during, ere, except, for, from, in, into like, notwithstanding, of, off, on, out of, over, past, round, save, since, till, until, through, throughout, to, toward, towards, under. unto, up, upon, with, within, without]
I P P M A A A A Shh! Nonsense! Ah, ha! Hurrah! Oh!, etc.
Phonemes, spelling, vocabulary, compositions, dictionary, books, tests
I M A A See, hear, say (read) and write 70 individual phonograms (spelling patterns of English)
I M A A A Sound, "read" and understand the meaning of six spelling words per day (30 per week/850 per year), in isolation, until automaticity is established
I M A A Read original written sentences aloud to class (first reading "in context")
I P M A A Listen to and read classmates' written sentences
I P P M A Recognize that seeing (reading), hearing, saying (reading) and writing the component parts of written work in English is to build a solid foundation for reading what others have written.
I P P M A A A Read from books beginning in the ninth week for knowledge, entertainment, and comprehension
I M A Learn and read names of the letters of the alphabet for:
I P P M Using the dictionary
I P P M A A Read and learn common diacritical markings
I P P M A A Learn to look up and read words and definitions in the dictionary
I P P M A A Reading and alphabetizing lists
I P P M A A Talking and reading about letters and spelling
I P P M A A Oral spelling (after sound/symbol relationships have already been established)
Read to "discover" and make permanent, usable records of various word classifications:
I P P M A A Synonyms
I P P M A A Antonyms
I P P M A A Homonyms
I P P M A A Homophones
I P P M A A Homographs
I P P M A A Compound Words
I P P P M A A A Plurals (see p. 10)
I P P P M A Recognize, understand and read synonyms, antonyms, in reading and writing
I P M A A Recognize, understand and read homonyms, homophones, homographs in reading, writing and vocabulary development
I P P M A A Recognize, read, and use contractions and possessive case (with correct use of apostrophes) in reading and writing
I P P M A A Derive additional meaning and comprehension of words read "in context" in literature and other "across the curriculum" course work
Reading/Comprehension Strategies/Vocabulary:
Listening, observing, thinking, comprehending and reasoning skills:
I P P M A A Follows instructions independently
I P P M A A Distinguishes between similarities and differences in written works
I P M A Determines sequences for mechanical tasks (penmanship)
I P M A A Distinguishes fact and fantasy (fiction/news)
I P P M A Detects absurdities
Oral Reading/Vocabulary Skills:
I P M A A A Understands the "language of instruction"
I P M A A A Understands basic words used in questioning
I P M A A A Understands terms used in school tasks, including grammar and syntax instructions
I P M A A A Understands terms used in word classifications
I P M A A Understands terms used in counting and measuring
I P M A A A Comprehends teacher's oral instructions, dictation and Socratic questioning
I P M A A A Reads with automaticity to "free the mind" for full comprehension
I P M A A A Practices and tests comprehension with "normed" tests 3 times weekly; records scores
Understands what reading is - what it is for:
I M Understands that written symbols (letters) which represent speech sounds, are used to communicate the writer's thoughts
I P M A Recognizes that reading takes the reader into a world of art, culture and intellect that generally is not accessible from spoken language only
I P M A A A Recognizes that both reading and writing develop and raise the level of spoken language
I P P M A Recognizes that writing tends to "clarify" the writer's thought processes
I P M A A Practices and tests twice weekly with inferential thinking exercises which requires answers in full written sentences
Comprehension/literal reading skills:
I P P M A A A Follows written instructions
I M Recognizes that words must be decoded/encoded accurately
I P P M A A A Recalls sequences in a story or article
I P P M A A A Understands relevant facts
I P P M A A A Determines time, place, cause and effect
I P P M A A A Anticipates outcomes
I P P M A A A Interprets inferences and implied meanings
I P P M A A Determines main idea
I P P M A A Summarizes or retells fact or fiction, orally and in writing
Interprets, comprehends and uses figurative language:
I P P M A Similes (busy as a bee, fits like a glove, clear as day)
I P P M A Metaphors (She's a regular adding machine; Dad's bark is worse than his bite.)
I P P M A Analogies (in is to out as hot is to cold; silk is as smooth as sandpaper is rough)
I P P M A A Idiomatic expressions (down in the dumps; cracked a book; dead to the world)
I P P M A A Use of idioms (catch cold, catch fire, catch on; back down, back out, back up)
I P P M A A A Proverbs (Birds of a feather flock together, Make hay while the sun shines)
I P P M Euphemisms (truant: Needs to develop a sense of responsibility in regard to attendance)
I P P M A Understands authors' techniques in creating a mood
Analytical/inferential reading/comprehension:
I P P M A Recognizes important ideas and details
I P P M A A A A Analyzes and interprets author's information and ideas
Thinks analytically about author's
I P P M A A language
I P P M style
I P P M purpose
I P P M perspective
I P P M A A Recognize difference between fact and opinion
I P P M A Recognizes and draws inferences
I P P M A Draws conclusions
I P P M Compares and contrasts ideas
I P P M Evaluates ideas for reliability and validity
I P P M Recognizes propaganda techniques
I P P M Is aware of publication dates
I P M Relates material to its place in history
Language Arts - Use of Resources; students are able to fully utilize:
I P M Wall Charts (K-2) Participates in the preparation of, has access to and uses important language arts information on room-size wall charts: phonetics, spelling rules with illustrations. grammar syntax and vocabulary on wall charts to aid independent learning and self correction of work
I P P M Prepares reference notebook defining and illustrating all basic information in phonetics, rules of spelling, syllabication, plurals, punctuation, syntax, grammar (parts of speech). word classifications, etc. which are taught to prepare students for independent learning and self-assessment
I P P M A A Dictionary - K-2 and ESL Spelling & Usage Dictionary which stresses the use of words rather than pronunciations and meanings comprehensible, pronounceable vocabularies demand the use of a diacritically-marked conventional dictionary
I P P M A A Conventional and etymological dictionary: learns organization of dictionaries, how to read and interpret diacritical markings, word origins, meanings
I P P M A A A Encyclopedias: - students read beginning selections in the World book
I P M A Internet, world wide web, keyboarding; begins after students' hands are developmentally ready to learn automatic touch keyboarding (about 4th grade)
I P P M A A A A Library/Literature - a classroom "distributed" library with at least 500 books should be available to K-7 students; selections should be of historical, culturally diverse, vocabulary-rich and of significant literary value
I P P M A A A Card file: Dewey Decimal System, Reading Selection Anthologies in all subject areas.
Resource Texts and Teacher Curriculum Materials needed to produce these skills:
The Writing and Spelling Road to Reading and Thinking
Teacher's Edition with monthly assessments
Phonogram Cards, set of 71, with handwriting instructions
Phonogram Tape w/Spelling Rules
Spelling & Usage Dictionary for K-2 and ESL students, McCall-Crabbs Standard Test Lessons in Reading, Teachers College Press (comprehension practice and assessment
Reading and Thinking, Evans, Teachers College Press (inferential thinking)
ABC's and All Their Tricks (Analyzes 17,000 words for spelling patterns)
English From the Roots Up (teaches 100 Latin and Greek roots)
Instant Vocabulary, Ehrlich (roots, prefixes, suffixes),
The New Reading Teacher's Book of Lists, Prentice Hall (variety in grammar, vocabulary etc.)
The Complete Book of Diagrams, Mary Daly, 1996